Female Infertility – Introduction:
Infertility is an emergent issue in India. According to recent studies, In India, around 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility. In addition, there is a paucity of awareness about modern female infertility treatment facilities among married infertile couples.
Understanding the fundamental cause of female infertility and getting the right treatment for infertility in females is crucial. For this reason, it is important that the pair should consult a doctor or infertility clinic and get themselves examined. Female Infertility treatment facilities especially in Rajasthan, are fetching promising results in the gloomy life of infertile couples.
What is Female Infertility?
Infertility is the inability to conceive after at least a year of trying (or 6 months if the woman is over age 35). If a woman continues to experience miscarriages, this condition is also known as infertility. Female infertility can be caused by age, physical issues, hormonal issues, as well as lifestyle and environmental variables.
How common is Female Infertility?
The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a massive international investigation to establish gender distribution and the causes of infertility. In 37% of infertile couples, female infertility was the cause; in 35%, both male and female factors were found; and in 8%, male factor infertility was the cause.
It was also found that the majority of infertile couples worldwide suffer from primary infertility, meaning the woman has never conceived. Secondary infertility, on the other hand, can develop at any point in a woman’s life after her first pregnancy.
In India, It is estimated that around 13-19 million couples are expected to be infertile at a given point in time. Some previously unknown obstetric threats for female infertility like the early age of first pregnancy, a history of no prenatal care during the last pregnancy, unwanted pregnancies, stillbirths, infections acquired during the previous delivery, and HIV and other STIs are found strongly associated with female infertility in India.
What causes female infertility problems?
The main causes of female infertility are as follows:
1. Failure to Ovulate: The inability to ovulate is the leading cause of female infertility, affecting 40 per cent of women with infertility concerns. Several illnesses, including ovarian or gynaecological disorders such as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) or polycystic ovary syndrome, might prevent ovulation (PCOS) and Normal ageing.
2. Uterine fibroids: Uterine fibroids are noncancerous uterine growths that commonly manifest during the childbearing years. Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas or myomas, are not connected with an elevated risk of uterine cancer and usually never progress to malignancy.
3. Failure of an egg to mature properly: Eggs may fail to mature correctly for a variety of causes, including PCOS, obesity, and a lack of particular proteins required for egg maturation. An immature egg may not be released at the appropriate time, may not travel through the fallopian tubes, or may not be fertile.
4. Infections: In women, untreated gonorrhoea and chlamydia can develop to pelvic inflammatory disease, which may result in scarring that obstructs the fallopian tubes. Untreated syphilis raises the chance of stillbirth in pregnant women. Chronic infections in the cervix and surgical treatment of cervical lesions caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may also diminish the quantity or quality of cervical mucus.
5. Problems in the menstrual cycle: Infertility can result from problems with the menstrual cycle, the process that prepares the female body for conception. The menstrual cycle consists of multiple phases, and abnormalities at any phase might result in infertility or trouble becoming pregnant.
6. Problems in Female reproductive system: Eggs cannot migrate from the ovaries to the uterus if the fallopian tubes are closed, and sperm cannot reach the egg for fertilisation. Infertility can also be caused by uterine structural abnormalities, such as those that prevent implantation.
7. Autoimmune Disorders: Autoimmune diseases lead the immune system to assault normal body tissues that it would ordinarily disregard. Uncertain and disease-specific, it is believed that inflammation in the uterine and placenta or drugs used to treat the disorders contribute to this phenomenon.
Who is at risk for female infertility?
1. Women over 35 years of age: The likelihood of a woman becoming pregnant diminishes with age. Age is becoming a more prevalent issue in female infertility, as more couples wait until their 30s or 40s to have children. Women over the age of 35 are more likely to experience fertility troubles.
2. Diabetic Patients: Diabetes occurs when your cells are unable to absorb and utilise glucose (sugar) for energy. This causes an accumulation of sugar in the circulation. Uncontrolled diabetes may result in infertility.
3. Women having eating disorders: Eating disorders are significant, complicated mental health issues that impair both emotional and physical well-being. People with eating disorders have inappropriate associations with food, their looks, or their weight.
4. Women having lifestyle disorders: Smoking, drinking, chewing tobacco, etc cause adverse effect on female infertility.
5. People with ongoing Radiation therapy or other cancer treatments: In addition to chemotherapy and surgery, radiation therapy is one of the most essential cancer treatments available. Radiation treatment targets malignant cells, howeverit may also target surrounding healthy tissue as well.
6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): STDs, or sexually transmitted illnesses, are also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual behaviour that includes the mouth, anus, vagina, or penis might result in an STD.
7. Stressful Life: Stress is a common human response that everyone experiences. The human body is built to experience and respond to stress. Changes or difficulties (stressors) cause the body to develop physical and mental reactions. That is known as Stress.
Today, the incidence of female infertility is on the rise, but thanks to current medical knowledge, female infertility treatments are becoming increasingly helpful. In addition to becoming more inexpensive, fertility treatment for women now results in around 90 per cent of successful pregnancies. There are many treatments for infertility in females options, including medications to correct hormonal issues, surgery for physical problems and in vitro fertilization (IVF).
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